Zale lunifera (Hübner, 1818)
Pine Barrens Zale
NatureServe Global Rank: G3G4
Virginia State Rank: S2
VA DGIF Tier: None
Federal Legal Status: None
Virginia Legal Status: None
Description: The wings are gray to brown with variable white dusting. There is a dark basal area and two sharp bends in the am line. The reniform spot is whitish. The wingspan 37-45 mm. The area to the outside of the am line is the lightest part of the front wing. The pm line is doubled and wavy, angled towards the wing base as it runs to the trailing edge of the wing.
Similar species: The Barrens Zale is a member of a complex species that includes the Bold-based Zale. The latter species flies 2-3 weeks earlier where the species co-occur, but identification between the two is difficult.
North American Range: New England to Virginia, east of the Appalachians, and Indiana, also Arkansas.
VA Observations by Locality: Alleghany | Botetourt | Craig
Flight season and broods: Two broods, April-May and July-August.
Habitat and Food Plants: Black Cherry, White Pine, and various scrub oak species in open, sandy pine-oak forests.
Behavior and Ecology: Larvae are new leaf specialists and will die if fed older leaves.
Population trend and potential threats: Unknown
Management practices: None yet.
References: Covell, Charles V. Covell, Jr.; A Field Guide to Moths of Eastern North America; Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. P. 167.
Moth Photographers Group at the Mississippi Entomological Museum at Mississippi State University. Web application at: http://mothphotographersgroup.msstate.edu/large_map.php?hodges=8713 Accessed: 26Apr2013
NatureServe. 2012. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. (Accessed: September 30, 2012 ).
Wagner, D. L., D.F. Schweitzer, J.B. Sullivan, and R.C. Reardon. 2011. Owlet Caterpillars of Eastern North America. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. 576pp.
Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, 600 E. Main St., 24th Floor, Richmond, VA 23219
This atlas was compiled
by the VA Natural Heritage Program with funds provided by the VA Dept. of Game and Inland Fisheries through a state wildlife grant
from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Last Modified: Thursday, 07 March 2019, 09:48:31 PM